Today, 1,000,000 Temne people, who are related to the Baga, live in small chiefdoms within Sierra Leone. Ruled by a central chief, they are socially regulated by secret societies such as the male poro society and the female bondo (bundu) association. The men of the poro used to take future initiates away; they would remain absent from their village for several months, sometimes for years, until the time they underwent the ceremony allowing them to wear the sign of the poro, a hat. Then they would form a work group and spend a few days in the meeting house before being “reborn” and given a “bush name.” During initiation rites related to the latter, young girls were led by the head of the association, called soko, to a sacred grove by a river. At the head of the procession, the soko may carry a female figure which is a representation of an ideal woman. There the girls learn the secrets of womanhood, and undergo a clitoridectomy. When the initiates have completed their training, they are presented to the community as fully mature women. Carved wooden headdresses are danced by leaders of the woman's association to make manifest the spirits who guide them. A masked spirit is seen as one embodiment of the mystical power of the bondo. For ceremonies designed to legitimize the authority of certain families, the Temne have a mask, which represents the spirit responsible for protecting the reigning dynasty of each chiefdom. This legitimizes the religious power of the new chief. The mask is only seen in public for the enthroning ceremony of a chief, in which it plays a central role. Numerous wooden masks belonging to men's associations have been documented and collected from the Temne. Still in use today in many Temne chiefdoms, the masks represent the guardian spirit of the ruling clan and bear specific names relating to the dynasty concerned.

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